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  • EUTOPIA Alliance
  • 2014-2023

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Koncut, Erik;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Repository of the Un...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Celis, Karen; Mügge, Liza;

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Vrije Universiteit B...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Biggi, Maria Ida;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Šavc, Alenka;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Albert-Lőrincz, Eniko; Paulik, Edit; Szabo, Bela; Foley, Kristie; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. Method A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking. Results Experimenting with smoking was mostly related to knowledge about smoking, academic performance and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home. The strongest risk factor of adolescent smoking was the smoking behaviour of classmates: those who reported a significant proportion of smokers among their classmates were nine times more likely to smoke themselves than in other cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.05). Those who considered smoking to be harmless were 4 times more likely to be smokers than those who considered this behaviour to be dangerous (aOR: 4.28). Poor academic results increased adolescents’ smoking (aOR: 3.22 and 2.66). The odds were significantly higher for smoking, if they had an active social life (aOR: 2.54). Regular church attendance proved to be a protective factor (aOR: 0.45). Conclusions Several social capital factors can play a role in adolescent smoking. The organization and the development of community activities aimed at prevention must strengthen the factors related to the community's social capital to reduce the likelihood of teenage smoking. RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del capital social sobre el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método El estudio se realizó en un grupo aleatorizado y estratificado compuesto por 1313 estudiantes de séptimo y octavo grado de tres municipios en Transilvania (Rumanía). Los participantes contestaron un cuestionario autocumplimentado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y sobre actitudes y comportamientos respecto a este. El impacto del capital social, entendido como actividades personales y comunitarias, así como el desarrollo académico y la información sobre el consumo de tabaco, fueron algunas de las medidas. Resultados Experimentar con el hábito de fumar se relaciona principalmente con el conocimiento sobre dicha adicción, el rendimiento académico y la exposición al consumo de tabaco en el hogar. El mayor riesgo para el consumo se deriva de la interacción con compañeros de clase que incurren en el consumo de tabaco. En tal caso, la probabilidad de consumo aumenta nueve veces (odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 9,05). Quienes consideraron que fumar es inofensivo tuvieron cuatro veces más probabilidades de ser fumadores que quienes consideraron este comportamiento como peligroso (ORa: 4,28). En cuanto a los/las estudiantes con bajo rendimiento académico se observa un mayor incremento del consumo (ORa: 3,22 y 2,66). Al mismo tiempo, dicho patrón también se observa entre aquellos/as con un entorno social activo (ORa: 2,54). La asistencia a la iglesia de manera regular es un factor protector (ORa: 0,45). Conclusiones Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el capital social se asocian al consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. La organización de actividades y el desarrollo comunitario deberán tener en cuenta estos aspectos para prevenir el consumo de tabaco. Hay que prestar especial atención a la clase social con el fin de reducir las probabilidades de consumo en adolescentes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kovačič, Neda;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pelko, Teja;

    Z dvakratno Diels–Alderjevo reakcijo med derivati 2H-piran-2-onov in maleinanhidridom ali N-substituiranim maleimidom lahko pripravimo substituirane biciklo[2.2.2]oktene, pri čemer pride do eliminacije molekule CO2. Biciklo[2.2.2]oktenski derivati, ki vsebujejo maleinanhidridne obroče, so zanimive tarče za nadaljnje pretvorbe z dušikovimi nukleofili. V diplomskem delu naj bi bile raziskane reakcije, s katerimi bi na biciklični skelet uvedla piridinske in druge (hetero)aromatske amine, ki služijo bodisi kot ligandi za različne katione prehodnih kovin, bodisi kot akceptorji halogenske vezi in predstavljajo pomembne strukturne fragmente pri gradnji novih 2D in 3D molekulskih arhitektur. By double Diels–Alder reaction of 2H-pyran-2-one derivatives and maleic anhydride or N-substituted maleimide, substituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octenes can be prepared via elimination of a CO2 molecule. Bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives containing maleic anhydride rings are interesting targets for further conversions with nitrogen nucleophiles. In this Diploma work I intended to investigate reactions that would introduce pyridine and other (hetero)aromatic amines to the bicycle skeleton, which would serve either as ligands for various transition metal cations or as halogen bond acceptors and would thus represent important structural fragments in the construction of new 2D and 3D molecular architectures.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jerman, Janez;
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    Authors: Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu; Dimitri A. Svistunenko; Daniela Cioloboc; Cristina Bischin; +2 Authors

    The nitrite adducts of globins can potentially bind via O- or N- linkage to the heme iron. We have used EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and DFT (density functional theory) to explore these binding modes to myoglobin and hemoglobin. We demonstrate that the nitrite adducts of both globins have detectable EPR signals; we provide an explanation for the difficulty in detecting these EPR features, based on uniaxial state considerations. The EPR and DFT data show that both nitrite linkage isomers can be present at the same time and that the two isomers are readily interconvertible in solution. The millisecond-scale process of nitrite reduction by Hb is investigated in search of the elusive Fe(II)-nitrite adduct. Highlights • A DFT-derived barrier for nitrite linkage isomerism on heme center is reported. • EPR spectra of nitrite adducts show evidence for linkage isomerism. • The electronic structure of Fe(III)-nitrite heme is conformation-dependent. • Certain conformations are inducive to EPR silence. • Fe(II)-nitrite is undetectable on stopped-flow time scales. Graphic Abstract Graphic entry for the Table of Contents (TOC).

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    Nitric Oxide
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Nitric Oxide
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Catrinel A. Ştefan; Julia Avram;

    ABSTRACTThe aims of the current study were (1) to replicate findings regarding the mediator role of emotion regulation (ER) between attachment and empathy; (2) to extend current knowledge by testing the moderator effect of ER on the relationship between attachment and empathy; and (3) to test an integrative moderated mediation model in which attachment was hypothesized to moderate its indirect effect on empathy. The sample included 212 preschoolers aged three- to five-years old. Attachment, ER, and empathic perspective-taking were assessed by employing child interviews. The results confirmed that more secure attachment patterns foster higher ER awareness, which in turn is associated with higher levels of empathy; the strongest relationship between attachment and empathy occurs at below-average ER awareness; and the strength of the indirect effect of attachment on empathy through ER decreases as attachment security increases. These findings have implications for designing and implementing preventive interv...

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Palma, Flavia;
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    Authors: Hebaz, Salah-Eddine; Lambert, Ambroise; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Serfaty, Stéphane; +2 Authors

    International audience Les organismes vivants sont des matériaux complexes, capables d’interagir avec leur environnement. Leurs fonctionnalités et leurs structures internes peuvent être modifiées à différentes échelles par stimulations acoustiques. Elles permettent notamment de renforcer certaines propriétés existantes pour leur conférer de nouvelles capacités. Dans ce contexte, la compréhension des interactions cellules – ondes acoustiques peut devenir un enjeu majeur pour des applications de santé et de nombreux domaines connexes. Ce travail présente un dispositif expérimental développé pour la stimulation acoustique et le suivi non- destructif par ondes ultrasonores de matériaux vivants en culture cellulaire. Ces matériaux sont constitués entités structurales vivantes (cellules et éléments de croissance cellulaire) contenus dans un fluide (milieu de culture). Le dispositif utilise un système de génération d’ondes basses fréquences (20 Hz – 20 kHz), collé au support de culture (une boîte de Pétri). Le suivi des changements des propriétés mécaniques de ce fluide complexe est réalisé par impédancemétrie ultrasonore hautes fréquences (100 kHz – qq MHz). Pour comprendre les interactions ondes-cellules, la propagation des ondes est simulée numériquement dans un premier temps en considérant une boite de Pétri, utilisée en cavité résonante, remplie d’un milieu de culture avec et sans cellules. Une analyse préliminaire temps-fréquence est mise en œuvre expérimentalement pour valider les résultats. Une validation applicative est enfin proposée dans le cadre d’une étude de l’influence de séquences sonores spécifiques sur la synthèse protéique à l’échelle de la cellulaire. Ces expériences sont menées sur une lignée de cellules de cancer ovarien (notée SKOV3), transfectées par un plasmide exprimant une protéine d’adhérence cellulaire (intégrine), couplée à une sonde fluorescente. La comparaison avec des images obtenues par microscopie confocale doit permettre d’évaluer l’efficacité de cette approche.

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    Authors: Nichols, Ben; Quince, Christopher;

    AbstractPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the principal method of amplifying target DNA regions and, as such, is of great importance when performing microbial diversity studies. An unfortunate side effect of PCR is the formation of unwanted byproducts such as chimeras. The main goal of the work covered in this article is the development of an algorithm that simulates realistic chimeras for use in the evaluation of chimera detection software and for investigations into the accuracy of community structure analyses. Experimental data has helped to identify factors which may cause the formation of chimeras and has provided evidence of how influential these factors can be. This article makes use of some of this evidence in order to build a model with which to simulate the PCR process. This model helps to better explain the formation of chimeras and is therefore able to provide aid to future studies that intend to use PCR.

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    Authors: Li, Yang; He, Xiang; Dong, Yiting; Kong, Qingqun; +1 Authors

    Spiking neural network (SNN) has been attached to great importance due to the properties of high biological plausibility and low energy consumption on neuromorphic hardware. As an efficient method to obtain deep SNN, the conversion method has exhibited high performance on various large-scale datasets. However, it typically suffers from severe performance degradation and high time delays. In particular, most of the previous work focuses on simple classification tasks while ignoring the precise approximation to ANN output. In this paper, we first theoretically analyze the conversion errors and derive the harmful effects of time-varying extremes on synaptic currents. We propose the Spike Calibration (SpiCalib) to eliminate the damage of discrete spikes to the output distribution and modify the LIPooling to allow conversion of the arbitrary MaxPooling layer losslessly. Moreover, Bayesian optimization for optimal normalization parameters is proposed to avoid empirical settings. The experimental results demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance on classification, object detection, and segmentation tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain SNN comparable to ANN on these tasks simultaneously. Moreover, we only need 1/50 inference time of the previous work on the detection task and can achieve the same performance under 0.492$\times$ energy consumption of ANN on the segmentation task.

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • Authors: Muhammad Furqan Khurshid; Anwar Abdkader; Chokri Cherif;

    The processing of waste carbon fibre on carding machine for the developments of nonwovens, tapes and hybrid yarn structures is an emerging trend. These structures are widely used to enhance the per...

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  • Authors: Shirvani, Zeinab; Abdi, Omid; Buchroithner, Manfred F.;

    Despite facilitating transport by low-volume roads for multiple purposes, these roads also open corridors to the remote pristine forests and accelerate forest dynamics with deleterious consequences to the forest functionalities and indigenous inhabitants. We assessed the spatial variations of Hyrcanian forest loss, fragmentation, and degradation resulting from the expansion of rural, logging, and mine roads between 1966 and 2016 in northeast Iran. Various data were employed to generate a precise road network; the density of road segments was weighted on the basis of their carrying capacity during 1966–1986, 1986–2000, and 2000–2016. Three dimensions of forest changes were retrieved using the Landsat time-series and object-based image analysis. The spatial patterns of high rates of forest changes were clustered using spatial autocorrelation indicators. The spatial regression models were carried out to explore relationships between forest change and road expansion. The results showed that rural roads were upgraded but forest and mine roads remarkably expanded in recent decades. The spatial variations of forest-dynamic patterns have been changing from forest loss (1966–2000) to forest fragmentation and degradation (1986–2016). The high density of rural roads was significant on the high rates of forest loss and fragmentation during 1966–2000, and the expansion of forest and mine roads significantly intensified the rates of fragmentation and degradation during 1986–2016. Our findings suggest for mitigating destructive schemes over Hyrcanian forests, developing either protected areas or joining unprotected forests to the reserved areas should be prioritized.

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    Authors: Ana, Domi; Estelle, Barbier; Louise, Adermark; Esi, Domi;

    Abstract Aims Despite a general decline in tobacco use in the last decades, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains substantial (45–50%). Importantly, the co-use of both substances potentiates the adverse effects, making it a significant public health problem. Substantial evidence suggests that AUD and Tobacco use disorder (TUD) may share common mechanisms. Targeting these mechanisms may therefore provide more effective therapy. Numerous studies describe a potential role of the endogenous opioid system in both AUD and TUD. Reviewing this literature, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of molecules that target the opioid system as promising therapeutic interventions for treating alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Methods We provide a synthesis of the current epidemiological knowledge of alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. We evaluate clinical and preclinical research that focuses on the regulation of the endogenous opioid system in alcohol, nicotine, and their interactions. Results The epidemiological data confirm that smoking stimulates heavy drinking and facilitates alcohol craving. Pharmacological findings suggest that treatments that are efficacious in the dual addiction provide a beneficial treatment outcome in comorbid AUD and TUD. In this regard, MOP, DOP and NOP-receptor antagonists show promising results, while the findings prompt caution when considering KOP-receptor antagonists as a treatment option in alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Conclusions Existing literature suggests a role of the opioid system in sustaining the high comorbidity rates of AUD and TUD. Molecules targeting opioid receptors may therefore represent promising therapeutic interventions in ‘heavy drinking smokers.’

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    Alcohol and Alcoholism
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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