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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Formisano, Annarita; Hunsberger, Monica; Bammann, Karin; Vanaelst, Barbara; +7 Authors

    AbstractObjectiveTo analyse the association between family structure and adiposity in children.DesignCross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort.SettingPrimary schools and kindergartens.SubjectsChildren (n12 350; aged 7·9 (sd1·8) years) for the cross-sectional analysis and children (n5236; at baseline: normal weight, aged 5·9 (sd1·8) years) for the longitudinal study underwent anthropometry. Family structure was analysed as (i) number and type of cohabiting adults and (ii) number of siblings.ResultsIn the cross-sectional analysis, after controlling for covariates, children living with grandparents had significantly higher BMIZ-score than those living with both parents (0·63; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92v. 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22;P< 0·01); in addition, the higher the number of siblings, the lower the BMIZ-score (only child = 0·31; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·38; 1 sibling = 0·19; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·23; 2 siblings = 0·15; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·20; >2 siblings = 0·07, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·19;P< 0·001). Over the 2-year follow-up, differences in weight gain were observed across family-structure categories. Further, the risk of incidence of overweight/obesity was significantly lower the higher the number of siblings living in the household (v. only child: 1 sibling = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·96; 2 siblings = 0·63, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88; >2 siblings = 0·40, 95 % CI 0·21, 0·77), independently of confounders.ConclusionsThe study suggests that an independent association between family structure and childhood obesity exists.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Public Health Nutrit...arrow_drop_down
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    Public Health Nutrition
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Public Health Nutrit...arrow_drop_down
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      Public Health Nutrition
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ana, Domi; Estelle, Barbier; Louise, Adermark; Esi, Domi;

    Abstract Aims Despite a general decline in tobacco use in the last decades, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) remains substantial (45–50%). Importantly, the co-use of both substances potentiates the adverse effects, making it a significant public health problem. Substantial evidence suggests that AUD and Tobacco use disorder (TUD) may share common mechanisms. Targeting these mechanisms may therefore provide more effective therapy. Numerous studies describe a potential role of the endogenous opioid system in both AUD and TUD. Reviewing this literature, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of molecules that target the opioid system as promising therapeutic interventions for treating alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Methods We provide a synthesis of the current epidemiological knowledge of alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. We evaluate clinical and preclinical research that focuses on the regulation of the endogenous opioid system in alcohol, nicotine, and their interactions. Results The epidemiological data confirm that smoking stimulates heavy drinking and facilitates alcohol craving. Pharmacological findings suggest that treatments that are efficacious in the dual addiction provide a beneficial treatment outcome in comorbid AUD and TUD. In this regard, MOP, DOP and NOP-receptor antagonists show promising results, while the findings prompt caution when considering KOP-receptor antagonists as a treatment option in alcohol and tobacco co-use disorders. Conclusions Existing literature suggests a role of the opioid system in sustaining the high comorbidity rates of AUD and TUD. Molecules targeting opioid receptors may therefore represent promising therapeutic interventions in ‘heavy drinking smokers.’

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    Alcohol and Alcoholism
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Alcohol and Alcoholism
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anne-Lise Arnesen; Elina Lahelma; Lisbeth Lundahl; Elisabet Öhrn;

    The celebration of individual agency, which is closely connected to the promotion of the knowledge economy, competition and performance, is obvious in contemporary European education and youth policy, at national and supranational levels. Schools and teachers are thus expected to be crucial agents in fostering the development of flexible, responsible, self-governing and entrepreneurial citizens by adopting personalised pedagogies and continuous and close evaluation (Hartley, 2009). For example, the project Education Governance, Social Integration and Exclusion in Europe (EGSIE), which included studies from several European countries, revealed considerable consensus among teachers, principals and decision-makers on what constitutes a good student, a good teacher or a good head teacher, clearly reflecting such ideas about agency (Lindblad et al, 2002; Lindblad & Popkewitz, 2004). Consequently, structural and institutional power relations (Arnesen & Lundahl, forthcoming 2010) are downplayed and expressions of individual agency in terms of collective action and resistance are rendered more or less invisible. Furthermore, the emphasis on learning combined with high achievement and control may lead to more children and young people being marginalised and left with less room for agency, resulting in teachers’ attempts to promote socio-emotional development and fostering democratic citizenship being toned down. Such findings, however, make it no less essential to map and analyse new forms of influence and action, new freedoms and controls, individual as well as collective, resulting from or being in conflict with emerging power configurations This special issue highlights the subject of agency in Nordic educational institutions during the early 2000s, with respect to acting on, negotiating, opposing, transgressing and resisting, as well as examining the options for participation by various actors. It is suggested that altered relationships and increased tensions between individual ‘freedom’ (cf. Rose, 1999) and institutional control, as well as conflicting policies and values, bring about particular power dynamics, through which different actors within institutions may gain more or less influence. We also inquire into disruptions or actions that go against the grain. Whilst studies focusing on resistance often regard teachers and students as conflicting groups (see McFadden, 1995), our aim is also to search for alliances that might involve various constellations of students, teachers, and other actors. We look for contradictions in critical manifestations, since the position of being critical and in opposition is more open for some actors, e.g. middle-class boys and male teachers with permanent posts, than

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Educational Research Journal
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Educational Research Journal
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Markus J. Tamás; Stefan Hohmann;

    Microorganisms continuously experience rapid and drastic changes of the surrounding environment. Consequently, cells need to sense and to respond to such alterations in a highly controlled fashion in order to survive and to adapt to the ever-changing environment. Significant progress has recently been achieved in understanding the physiological, molecular and genetic details of yeast osmoregulation and adaptation. This review describes various aspects of the osmotic stress response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including the production and accumulation of compatible solutes, control of transport systems, signal transduction and the transcriptional response during osmotic stress.

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      https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: L, Zamora; A I, Vela; M A, Palacios; C, Sánchez-Porro; +5 Authors

    A taxonomic study was carried out on five Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gills and livers of five diseased rainbow trout. The five novel isolates were designated strains 687B-08T, 445-08, 452-08, 453B-08 and 967B-08. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the five novel strains appeared almost identical (99.0–100 % sequence similarity) and to belong to the genus Chryseobacterium . Strain 687B-08T (the strain selected to represent the five novel isolates) was found to be most closely related to Chryseobacterium oncorhynchi 701B-08T (98.9 % sequence similarity), Chryseobacterium ureilyticum F-Fue-04IIIaaaaT (98.6 %), Chryseobacterium indologenes ATCC 29897T (98.3 %), Chryseobacterium jejuense JS17-8T (98.1 %) and Chryseobacterium gleum ATCC 35910T (98.1 %). In DNA–DNA hybridizations, DNA–DNA relatedness values of 99–100 % were recorded between the five novel strains. Lower DNA–DNA relatedness values (21–57 %) were recorded between strain 687B-08T and C. oncorhynchi 701B-08T, C. ureilyticum F-Fue-04IIIaaaaT and the type strains of other closely related, established species of the genus Chryseobacterium . The predominant respiratory quinone of strain 687B-08T was MK-6 and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 1ω6c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 687B-08T was 38.6 mol%. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic evidence, the five novel strains isolated from rainbow trout represent a single, novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium , for which the name Chryseobacterium viscerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 687B-08T ( = CECT 7793T = CCUG 60103T).

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Merja, Nurkkala; Lotta, Wassén; Inger, Nordström; Inger, Gustavsson; +3 Authors

    We have evaluated whether cholera toxin (CT) as a carrier/adjuvant can enhance human T-cell responses to a viral oncoprotein in vitro using dendritic cells (DCs) as antigen-presenting cells. Monocyte-derived DCs obtained from women with cervical dysplasia were pulsed with the HPV16 oncoprotein E7, either alone or conjugated to CT, and tested for their ability to induce antigen-specific activation of autologous T cells in vitro. CT-conjugation of E7 significantly improved the capacity of pulsed DCs to activate antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion. The CT-E7-pulsed DCs also produced significantly more of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12 compared to DCs pulsed with E7 or CT alone. Furthermore, DCs pulsed with CT-conjugated HPV16 E7 caused a response in T cells from women with advanced disease (CIN III) as well as in T cells from women that were currently not infected with HPV16. These data show the potential of using CT-conjugated viral oncoproteins for DC-induced T-cell activation in humans.

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    Vaccine
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Vaccinearrow_drop_down
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      Vaccine
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Axelsson, Hans;

    Background and aim. Genes, proteins and pathways have been identified and suggested as potential targets in tumor angiogenesis, but current anti-angiogenic therapies have provided only modest benefits in survival of cancer patients. Therefore, further understanding of underlying mechanisms of tumor induced angiogenesis is mandatory in order to develop effective anti-angiogenic treatments in cancer disease. We have therefore focused on the role prostanoids may have to support tumor vasculature in progressive tumor growth of tumors. Methods. Two fundamentally different tumor models were used. MCG-101 tumors induced increased systemic levels of PGE2 and showed high sensitivity to COX inhibition, while K1735-M2 tumors did not produce PGE2 and were thus insensitive to COX inhibition regarding tumor growth in syngenic wild type mice. EP1- and EP3-receptor knockout tumor-bearing mice were also used. COX-inhibition was provided by indomethacin in the drinking water to block prostanoid synthesis in tumor and host tissues. Intravital microscopy was performed using a dorsal skin fold chamber technique for studies of early tumor growth and associated angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical and microarray analyses were applied. Results. Indomethacin reduced tumor growth and tumor related vascular area in wild type mice bearing MCG-101 tumors, but did not affect these parameters in K1735-M2 tumors. There was an unchanged relationship between the load of malignant cells and supportive vascular area among different tumor growth conditions. Unselective COX inhibition reduced tumor growth in EP3, but not in EP1 knockouts without significant alteration in tumor vascular density in EP3 knockouts. Indomethacin treatment influenced expression of a large number of genes (5% of >40 000 probes) responsible for important steps in carcinogenesis, inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle activity and proliferation, cell adhesion, carbohydrate & fatty acid metabolism and proteolysis in tumors on wild type mice. Affected genes were widely and uniformly distributed on chromosomes over the entire genome. Variation of COX-2 staining in MCG-101 tumors was significantly reduced following indomethacin treatment. Effects of altered prostanoid metabolism were significantly related to EGF-R expression in tumor tissue and transcripts of KRas, PI3K, JAK1, STAT3 and c-jun were down-regulated by indomethacin, while STAT1 and ELK1 did not show any such decline. Conclusion. Indomethacin treatment reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased tumor cell apoptosis in MCG-101 tumors with associated adaptive alterations in tumor vasculature. These effects were best predicted by alterations in EGF-R expression in tumor tissue with main downstream effects through KRas signaling.

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  • Authors: A, Lith; C, Lindstrand; H-G, Gröndahl;

    To assess, in a young population (age 6-19) managed by a restrictive attitude to radiography and operative intervention, prevalence of patients with posterior caries and/or fillings, probabilities of new proximal dentine lesions given different caries experience, correlation between radiographic intervals and caries experience, and prevalence of endodontic treatment.Bitewing radiographs, taken between age 6 through 19 in 285 patients, were analysed in succession. Occlusal and proximal surfaces were coded for caries depth (0-4) and presence of fillings (5). Simple regression analysis was used to determine relations between radiographic intervals and caries experience. Significance testings of probability estimates were made with chi(2)- and t-tests, when applicable adjusted by the Bonferroni-Holm correction for mass-significance.The prevalence of patients with/ or =1 fillings/dentine lesions in occlusal surfaces increased from 6-78% and in proximal ones from 1-38%. The probability of developing new proximal dentine lesions/fillings over different time periods was significantly lower among caries-free patients than among those with enamel or dentine lesions. There was a poor correlation between radiographic intervals (mean=16 months, range=6-33) and accumulated caries experience. Endodontic treatment had been made in a total of six teeth in six patients.A restrictive attitude both to the frequency with which radiographs are taken and to operative treatment of proximal caries seems to be possible in young populations with low caries prevalence.

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    Authors: Jesper, Sundell; Emile, Bienvenu; David, Janzén; Sofia, Birgersson; +2 Authors

    Tuberculosis is the most common cause of death in HIV‐infected patients. Isoniazid is used as a first‐line drug to treat tuberculosis infection. However, variability in isoniazid pharmacokinetics can result in hepatotoxicity or treatment failure. Determination of clinical factors affecting isoniazid pharmacokinetics and metabolic pathways in HIV co‐infected patients is therefore critical. Plasma levels of isoniazid, acetyl‐isoniazid, and isonicotinic acid from 63 patients co‐infected with tuberculosis and HIV were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry followed by nonlinear mixed‐effects modeling. Patients were genotyped to determine acetylator status. Patients were either on concomitant efavirenz‐based antiretroviral therapy or HIV treatment naïve. Clearances of isoniazid were 1.3‐fold and 2.3‐fold higher in intermediate and rapid acetylators, respectively, compared with slow acetylators. Patients on concomitant efavirenz‐based antiretroviral therapy had 64% and 80% higher population predicted clearances of acetyl‐isoniazid and isonicotinic acid, respectively, compared with patients who were HIV treatment naïve. Both sex and CD4 cell count affected the bioavailability of isoniazid. Variability in isoniazid exposure could be reduced by dose adaptions based on acetylator type and sex in addition to the currently used weight bands. A novel dosing strategy that has the potential to reduce isoniazid‐related toxicity and treatment failure is presented.

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    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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      Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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  • Authors: A, Holmäng; B M, Larsson; Z, Brzezinska; P, Björntorp;

    The effects of testosterone on insulin sensitivity were studied in oophorectomized female rats. Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp measurement showed a marked decrease of insulin sensitivity after 48 but not 24 h of testosterone exposure, which was overcome at high insulin concentrations. Insulin stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake as well as glycogen synthesis was measured in the white and red parts of the gastrocnemius, the extensor digitorum longus, and soleus muscles as well as in the liver (only glycogen synthesis). After 24 h of treatment, inhibition of both 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen synthesis was found in the most insulin-sensitive muscles. After 48 h of insulin stimulation, glycogen synthesis was inhibited in all examined individual muscles (white and red parts of gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus) as was the activity of the insulin-sensitive part of glycogen synthase in muscle. Inhibition of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake again affected the most insulin-sensitive muscles. There was a slight but significant change of muscle fiber composition toward less long-chain myosin and more short-chain myosin-containing fibers. Serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids, and blood glycerol did not change. It is concluded that testosterone administration in moderate doses to oophorectomized female rats is followed by a rapid deterioration of insulin sensitivity in muscle, mediated mainly by perturbations of the insulin receptor-glycogen synthesis systems apparently coinciding with changes in muscle morphology.

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    Authors: Elmir Omerovic; Rodolfo Citro; Eduardo Bossone; Bjorn Redfors; +17 Authors

    This is the first part of a scientific statement from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology focused upon the pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome and is complimentary to the previous HFA position statement on Takotsubo syndrome which focused upon clinical management. In part 1 we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome and fundamental questions to consider. We then review and discuss the central role of catecholamines and the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology, and the direct effects of high surges in catecholamines upon myocardial biology including β‐adrenergic receptor signalling, G‐protein coupled receptor kinases, cardiomyocyte calcium physiology, myofilament physiology, cardiomyocyte gene expression, myocardial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenicity, myocardial inflammation, metabolism and energetics. The integrated effects upon ventricular haemodynamics are discussed and integrated into the pathophysiological model.

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    European Journal of Heart Failure
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    European Journal of Heart Failure
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Journal of Heart Failure
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      European Journal of Heart Failure
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    Authors: Magnus, Lindh; Erik, Alestig; Birgitta, Arnholm; Anders, Eilard; +6 Authors

    ABSTRACT We monitored early viral response during the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with the aim of identifying predictors of treatment outcome. We studied 53 patients with genotype 1 infection who received 180 μg/week pegylated interferon alfa-2a and 1,000 or 1,200 mg/day ribavirin depending on body weight and serially assessed HCV RNA in serum, using the Cobas TaqMan assay. Thirty-one patients (58%) achieved sustained viral response (SVR). SVR was obtained in 100% (10/10) of patients with pretreatment viremia concentrations below 400,000 IU/ml, in 100% (14/14) of patients with more than 1.5 log reduction of HCV RNA after 4 days of treatment, and in 95% (22/23) of patients with a rate of decline in viremia higher than 0.70 log units/week during the second phase. Non-SVR was seen in all patients with a second-phase decline rate lower than 0.35 log units/week. Patients with slopes between 0.50 and 0.80 log units/week achieved SVR (4/4) unless the treatment dose was modified (3/3). We conclude that the second-phase slope appears to be an accurate and useful predictor of treatment response. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of tailored treatment which takes into account the second-phase slope and the amount of HCV RNA after 21 days of treatment.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Journal of Clinical Microbiology
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Lind, Nina; Nordin, Maria; Palmquist, Eva; Anna-Sara Claeson; +2 Authors

    Objectives: Asthma and allergy are stressful conditions that require coping strategies and social support to reduce stress and enhance health-promoting behavior. However, research is limited regarding coping and social support in asthma and allergy. The aim was to better understand use of different coping strategies and perceived social support in low and high severity (exacerbation frequency) of asthma and allergy. Methods: Population-based data were used to provide ratings of coping strategies (Study I) and social support (Study II) from 124 and 94 participants, respectively, with asthma and/or allergy, categorized as low or high in severity. Problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies were assessed as well as emotional, instrumental and informative social support from seven sources. Results: Study I showed that avoiding certain environments (problem-based coping) and trying to accept one’s situation (emotion-based) were the most commonly used coping strategies. These behaviors did not differ due to severity. Study II showed that more emotional than instrumental and informative support was perceived. The highest rated support sources were the partner, family members, and the healthcare system. More social support was reported in low compared to high asthma/allergy severity. Conclusion: The most commonly used coping strategies in the population of persons with these four types of asthma and allergy are avoiding certain environments and trying to accept one’s situation. More emotional support than instrumental and informative is perceived to be received, and most of the support is received from one’s partner and other family members, and least from authorities and patient associations/support groups.

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    Journal of Asthma
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    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Asthma
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    Authors: Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, A.; Inagaki, R.; Kanno, Taro; +3 Authors

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version is available at Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fracture load of monolithic zirconia crowns and axial/occlusal thickness, and to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with reduced thickness in comparison with that of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with regular thickness. Materials and methods. Monolithic zirconia crowns (Lava Plus Zirconia, 3M/ESPE) with specified axial/occlusal thicknesses and lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max press, Ivoclar/Vivadent) with regular thickness were fabricated using a dental CAD/CAM system and a press technique, respectively. The crowns cemented onto dies were loaded until fracture. Based on measurements of the crown thickness made by micro-CT and the fracture load, multiple regression analysis was performed. Results. It was revealed that the occlusal thickness significantly affected the fracture load (p<0.01) but the axial thickness did not (p=0.2828). Although the reduction of the occlusal thickness decreased the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia crowns, the fracture load of the zirconia crowns with the occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm (5558±522 N) was significantly higher than that of lithium disilicate crowns with an occlusal thickness of 1.5 mm (3147±409 N). Conclusion. Within the limitations of the present study, it was suggested that monolithic zirconia crown with chamfer width of 0.5 mm and occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm can be used in the molar region in terms of fracture resistance.

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    Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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