Abstract. This work presents the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea, by combining two different types of biogeochemical models with field sampling efforts. A longline mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural POC downward flux. This flux was first quantified by means of a pelagic model of POC deposition coupled to sediment traps data, and its effects on sediment bioirrigation capacity and OM degradation pathways were investigated by constraining an early diagenesis model, linked to new data in sediment porewaters. The measurements were performed at stations located inside and outside the area affected by mussel farm deposition. Model-predicted POC fluxes showed marked spatial and temporal variability, which were mostly associated with the dynamics of the farming cycle. Sediment traps data at the two sampled stations (in and out of the mussel farm) showed average POC background flux of 20.0–24.2 mmol C m−2 d−1. The difference of OC fluxes between the two stations was in agreement with model results, ranging between 3.3 and 14.2 mmol C m−2 d−1, and primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in POC fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry. Observed oxygen microprofiles presented a 50 % decrease in oxygen penetration depth (from 2.3 to 1.4 mm), accompanied by an increase in the O2 influx at the station below the mussel farm (19–31 versus 10–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1) characterized by higher POC flux. DIC and NH4+ concentrations had similar behavior, with a more evident effect of bioirrigation underneath the farm. This was confirmed through constraining the early diagenesis model, which calibration leads to an estimation of enhanced and shallower bioirrigation underneath the farm: bioirrigation rates of 40 y−1 and irrigation depth of 15 cm were estimated inside the shellfish deposition footprint versus 20 y−1 and 20 cm outside. These findings were confirmed by independent data on macrofauna composition collected at the study site. Early diagenesis model results indicated a larger organic matter mineralization below the mussel farm (11.1 versus 18.7 mmol m−2 d−1), characterized by similar proportions between oxic and anoxic degradation pathways at the two stations, with an increase in the absolute values of oxygen consumed by OM degradation and reduced substances re-oxidation underneath the mussel farm.
To investigate statin use in the elderly by age (≥ 80 vs. 65–79 years) in relation to established indications. A population-based cohort, including data from four registers, encompassing inhabitants in Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden, was used. Statin users were defined as those filling statin prescriptions ≥ 75% of the year 2010. Primary care and hospital diagnoses in 2005–2010 regarding ischemic heart disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks, and diabetes were considered established indications. A total of 278,205 individuals were analyzed. In individuals aged ≥ 80 and 65–79 years (n = 81,885 and n = 196,320, respectively), 17% (95% confidence interval 17%; 18%) and 23% (23%; 23%) respectively, were statin users. Among the statin users, 74% (73%; 74%) of those aged ≥ 80 and 60% (59%; 60%) of those aged 65–79 years had ≥ 1 established indication. Conversely, of those with ≥ 1 established indication, 30% (30%; 31%) and 53% (52%; 53%) were on statins in the respective age groups. Logistic regression revealed that age, nursing home residence, and multi-dose drug dispensing were the most prominent negative predictors for statin use; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 0.45 (0.44; 0.46), 0.39 (0.36; 0.42), and 0.47 (0.44; 0.49), respectively. In the oldest old (≥ 80 years), statin users were fewer and had more often an established indication, suggesting that physicians extrapolate scientific evidence for beneficial effects in younger age groups to the oldest, but require a more solid ground for treatment. As the oldest old, nursing home residents, and those with multi-dose drug-dispensing were statin users to a lesser extent, physicians may often refrain from treatment in those with lower life expectancy, either due to age or to severely reduced health status. In both age groups, our results however also indicate some over- as well as undertreatment.
The article “Normal Range of Human Dietary Sodium Intake: A Perspective Based on 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Worldwide” by McCarron et al.1 provides an opportunity to reflect on the major shift in an important public health debate. The issue is no longer whether reducing sodium (salt) intake is of public benefit; it is how best to reduce population salt intake to save the most lives. Therefore, why has the food and beverage industry mounted yet another campaign to try to resist beneficial changes, either directly or indirectly through their academic voices?2–4 Strategies to undermine public health intervention have included biasing research findings, co-opting policy makers and health professionals, lobbying politicians and public officials to oppose public regulation, and encouraging voters to oppose public health regulation.3 As early as 1982, the snack industry was systematically distracting attention from the salt–blood pressure issue by encouraging complacent scientists to divert the focus of research elsewhere.5 Their intent was to delay public health measures. However, since then the weight of scientific evidence has accumulated beyond any reasonable doubt.6–8 This evidence now supports evidence-based policy changes worldwide.9 It is therefore a sad but familiar story when articles like those of McCarron and colleagues appear (and then reappear) in the scientific literature.1 They reflect the huge amount of financial resources still committed to try and deny the harmful effects of salt. Witness the estimated €1 billion spent by the global food and beverage industry alliance to lobby against and sabotage the proposal for a traffic light food labelling system in Europe in 2010.2,3,10–13
Laboratory experiments were done to measure the susceptibility of larvae and adults of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Muscidae: Anthomyiidae) to 27 isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from four genera [Beauveria Vuillemin, Lecanicillium (Petch) Zare & W. Gams, Metarhizium Sorokin, and Paecilomyces Bainier]. A novel bioassay was developed for D. antiqua larvae by using a diet based on mixed vegetable powder. When evaluated in a virulence screen, the fungal isolates caused less mortality of D. antiqua larvae than adults. Only three isolates caused > 50% mortality of larvae, whereas 12 isolates caused > 50% mortality of adults. Fungal species was a statistically significant factor affecting the mortality of larvae but not of adults. The fungal isolates causing the most mortality of larvae tended to belong to Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Two M. anisopliae isolates (389.93 and 392.93) were evaluated in dose-response bioassays. The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against larvae were 6.1 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 389.93 and 7.6 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 392.93. The emergence of adult flies from pupae was reduced at high concentrations of conidia (3.0 x 10(8) and 1.0 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against adults were 1.7 x 10(7) and 4.0 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Some of the fungal isolates examined may have potential as biological control agents of larvae of D. antiqua and related species.
The study aimed to evaluate water quality at Bung Binh Thien Lake, An Giang Province, Vietnam using Shannon-Wiener species diversity index (H’) and associated average score per taxon (ASPT) calculated from composition of phytoplankton and zoobenthos. The water quality index (WQI) was used as the reference for the quality of surface water. The samples of surface water quality, phytoplankton, and zoobenthos were simultaneously collected at 11 sites in the dry season. The results showed that WQI (57-88) classified water quality from good to medium, H’ calculated using phytoplankton species (1.12-2.71) presented water quality from medium to bad whereas, (H'z) calculated (0 to 2.07) and ASPT (2-4.21) calculated from zoobenthos species divided water quality from bad to very bad. The findings revealed that assessing water quality should not totally only relied on diversity indices (H’, ASPT) but also carefully consider compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton. In addition, interpretation of the biodiversity indices for water quality examination should involve the experts in the relevant fields. Nghiên cứu nhằm đánh giá chất lượng nước tại hồ Bung Binh Thiên, tỉnh An Giang, Việt Nam sử dụng chỉ số đa dạng loài Shannon-Wiener (H’) và chỉ số tính điểm trung bình bình theo họ (ASPT) được tính từ thành phần của phiêu sinh thực vật và động vật đáy. Chỉ số chất lượng nước (WQI) được sử dụng tham chiếu cho chất lượng nước mặt. Các mẫu chất lượng nước mặt, phiêu sinh thực vật thực vật và động vật đáy được thu đồng thời tại 11 địa điểm trong mùa khô. Kết quả cho thấy WQI (57-88) phân loại chất lượng nước từ tốt đến trung bình, H’p được tính dựa vào các loài phiêu sinh thực vật (1.12-2.71) thể hiện chất lượng nước từ trung bình đến xấu trong khi, H’z (0- 2.07 ) và ASPT (2-4,21) được tính toán từ các loài động vật đáy phân loại chất lượng nước từ xấu đến rất xấu Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy đánh giá chất lượng nước không chỉ hoàn toàn dựa vào các chỉ số đa dạng (H’, ASPT) mà còn xem xét cẩn thận thành phần loài của phiêu sinh thực vật và động vật đáy. Ngoài ra, việc giải thích các chỉ số đa dạng sinh học nhằm tra chất lượng nước cần có sự tham gia của các chuyên gia trong các lĩnh vực liên quan. Journal of Vietnamese Environment, Vol 12 No 1 (2020)
In breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) the number of tumor-positive nodes can no longer reliably be determined. Furthermore, ultrasound (US) seems suboptimal for the detection of N3-disease. Therefore we assessed the proportion of breast cancer patients treated with NAC in which pre-chemotherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT detected ≥4 axillary nodes or occult N3-disease, upstaging nodal status and changing risk estimation for locoregional recurrence (LRR). Conventional regional staging consisted of US with fine needle aspiration and/or sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients were classified as low-risk (cT2N0), intermediate-risk (cT0N1, cT1N1, cT2N1, cT3N0), or high-risk (cT3N1, cT4, cN2-3) for LRR. The presence and number of FDG-avid nodes were evaluated and the proportion of patients that would be upstaged by PET/CT, based on detection of ≥4 FDG-avid axillary nodes defined as cN2(4+) or occult N3-disease, was calculated. In total, 87 of 278 patients were considered high-risk based on conventional staging. PET/CT detected occult N3-disease in 5 (11 %) of 47 low-risk patients. In 144 intermediate-risk patients, PET/CT detected ≥4 FDG-avid nodes in 24 (17 %) patients and occult N3-disease in 22 (15 %) patients, thereby finally upstaging 38 (26 %) of intermediate-risk patients. Of 43 (23 %) upstaged patients, 18 were ypN0, 12 were ypN1, and 13 were ypN2-3. Pre-chemotherapy PET/CT is valuable for selection of breast cancer patients at high risk for LRR. In our population, 23 % of patients treated with NAC were upstaged to the high-risk group based on PET/CT information, potentially benefiting from regional radiotherapy.
Objectives: To disentangle the effects of physician gender and patient-centered communication style on patients' oral engagement in depression care. Methods: Physician gender, physician race and communication style (high patient-centered (HPC) and low patient-centered (LPC)) were manipulated and presented as videotaped actors within a computer simulated medical visit to assess effects on analogue patient (AP) verbal responsiveness and care ratings. 307 APs (56% female; 70% African American) were randomly assigned to conditions and instructed to verbally respond to depression-related questions and indicate willingness to continue care. Disclosures were coded using Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Results: Both male and female APs talked more overall and conveyed more psychosocial and emotional talk to HPC gender discordant doctors (all p <.05). APs were more willing to continue treatment with gender-discordant HPC physicians (p <.05). No effects were evident in the LPC condition. Conclusions: Findings highlight a role for physician gender when considering active patient engagement in patient-centered depression care. This pattern suggests that there may be largely under-appreciated and consequential effects associated with patient expectations in regard to physician gender that these differ by patient gender. Practice implications: High patient-centeredness increases active patient engagement in depression care especially in gender discordant dyads.
Background and Aim: Low bone mineral density (BMD) has recently been recognized as a potential health problem in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to investigate the familial resemblance of BMD in pediatric patients with IBD. Patients and Methods: In this population-based study from western Sweden, we assessed 144 children with IBD, 83 with ulcerative colitis, 45 with Crohn disease, 16 with indeterminate colitis, and their parents (136 mothers and 130 fathers) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). After adjustment for sex, age, weight, height, and parental IBD, we correlated the BMD of the patients to the BMD of their mothers, fathers, and the midparent value ([mother's BMD + father's BMD]/2) at different skeletal sites and calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to evaluate the extent of familial resemblance. Results: The BMD of the children with IBD was clearly related to the BMD of their parents. The strongest correlation was found in the femoral neck with r = 0.55 (P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.41―0.66) between BMD of the children and the midparent value. The group of children with IBD had an odds ratio of 5.96 for decreased BMD (lumbar spine z score < ―1 standard deviation) given that decreased BMD was diagnosed in both parents. Conclusions: We conclude that BMD in children and adolescents with IBD is significantly related to that of their parents. In a clinical setting, it may be helpful to assess the parents of children with IBD with DEXA to interpret the children's DEXA measurements.
The influence of boron carbide and tungsten carbide on the apparent porosity, density, coercive force, hardness and microstructure of metal matrix composite of the Ferro-TiC type, is presented in this paper. The samples of investigated steel/titanium carbide composite were produced by powder metallurgy process, i.e. by powders mixing and compacting followed by sintering in the vacuum furnace. According to the results, steel/titanium carbide composite materials with addition up to 11.9 vol.% of boron carbide are interesting to detailed investigation as well as materials having more than 17.2 vol.% of tungsten carbide because these compositions show significant changes in hardness and coercive force values.
<div> <p>In the global scenario public regulatory regimes increasingly connect with privates one. As for accounting regulation the EU decided to move from the previous approach based on the accounting directives and use international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS) coming from a private body, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Global accounting standards first established by the private entity, gain binding force through European recognition based on a complex endorsement procedure. The European accounting regulation includes the endorsed international standards but not the conceptual framework from which they stem from. Based on the importance acknowledged to a theoretical framework for an accounting system, the paper seeks reasons for not considering it and/or for its implicit endorsement in the accounting regulation. The recent revision of the framework, coming from the IASB-FASB joint agreement, casts doubt on the considerations previously made and on the applicability of endorsed, but not aligned, international accounting standards.</p> </div> Ricerche giuridiche
Cornelia Braicu,1 Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric,1,2 Sergiu Chira,1 Anamaria Truta,1,3 Alexandru Floares,4 Bogdan Petrut,5,6 Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu,7,8,* Ioana Berindan-Neagoe1,9–11,*1Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 3Department of Medical Genetics, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 4Solutions of Artificial Intelligence Applications, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 5Department of Urology, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 6Department of Urology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 7Department of Surgery, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 8Department of Surgical Oncology and Gynaecological Oncology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 9Department of Immunology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 10Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 11Department of Experimental Therapeutics M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USAAbstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA species with a length of 20–22 nucleotides that are recognized as essential regulators of relevant molecular mechanisms, including carcinogenesis. Current investigations show that miRNAs are detectable not only in different tissue types but also in a wide range of biological fluids, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles. miRNAs were proven to be involved in cell communication, both in pathological and physiological processes. Evaluation of the global expression patterns of miRNAs provides key opportunities with important practical applications, taking into account that they modulate essential biological processes such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is a mechanism relevant in bladder cancer. miRNAs collected from biological specimens can furnish valuable evidence with regard to bladder cancer oncogenesis, as they also have been linked to clinical outcomes in urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, a single miRNA or a signature of multiple miRNAs may improve risk stratification of patients and may supplement the histological diagnosis of urological tumors, particularly for bladder cancer.Keywords: bladder cancer, miRNA, prognostic, diagnostic
m t p o s s i t s t u g m a a a a e The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cognitive and motional Health Project recently published their “Report f the Critical Evaluation Study Committee.” The Commitee chose to evaluate factors that preserve cognitive and motional health, instead of factors associated with disorers or other negative outcomes. However, as the authors oint out, the majority of studies are concerned with disases or bad outcomes, such as cognitive decline or depresive symptoms. Therefore, the results of this review are ased mainly on the assumption that if a factor is associated ith impaired cognitive or emotional health, its absence ould be related to preserved or improved cognitive funcion (and factors that are associated with less impairment hould be related to improved function). However, as the ommittee also notes, even if these assumptions are true, uccessful aging should be distinguished from normal aging nd unsuccessful aging. Preserved or even improved cogitive and emotional health might thus be related to other actors than what is found for deteriorating emotional and ognitive function and, even more so, for defined disorders. When evaluating factors associated with these outcomes, he Study Committee chose to evaluate only results from a umber of preselected large epidemiologic studies (more han 500 participants, age greater than 65 years, longitudinal esign, and including measurements of at least memory and ne more cognitive domain and measurement of depression nd one more emotional domain). The report is, thus, not a omprehensive meta-analysis of all studies published in the rea. In this way, the Committee hoped to circumvent the roblem of publication bias; specifically the studies were arge enough for meaningful interpretations of negative ndings. However, the report is based on published articles. o effort seems to have been made to elucidate possible
Abstract Background Sourdough is a cereal flour-water mixture that is fermented by communities of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and that is used for the production of baked goods. Its use has been subject to a renewed interest in the past years. The classical classification concept of sourdoughs distinguishes two major types (I and II), based on the process conditions applied for their production. Scope and approach In this study, both species diversity (LAB and yeasts) and processing conditions of sourdoughs were taken into account for the classification of sourdoughs. Therefore, a meta-analysis of such literature data on hundreds of backslopped sourdoughs is described. Key findings and conclusions The meta-analysis agreed with the subdivision into Type I and Type II sourdoughs. In general, the number of prevalent yeast species in a given sourdough was lower than the number of prevalent LAB species. Also, a lower number of prevalent LAB and yeast species characterized the microbial species diversity of Type I sourdoughs compared to Type II ones. This could be attributed to the prevalence of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in sourdoughs of the former type. The process conditions impacted the yeast species diversity, as differences were found for the fermentation temperature, dough yield, and fermentation time between sourdoughs. No influence could be found concerning the region of origin, albeit that literature data reflected regionally important sourdoughs.